About Xuhui
  • Population and Employment

    The population growth was under effective control. There was year-end registered population of 891.8 thousand in Xuhui District, up by 0.5% over the previous year and the population density of the area was 16,286 per square kilometer. The low birth rate was maintained. In a year, there were 5,724 births with the birth rate of 6.4% and 6,337 deaths with the death rate of 7.1% and the natural growth rate of -0.7%. The positive employment policy began to show result. The number of urban registered unemployed people was 20,422, within a range of 20,850. The re-employment project achieved remarkable result with newly added job opportunities of 55,391 around the year, meeting the year’s target of 187.1%. There were 1,987 informal labor organizations with 21,224 employees. The vocational training was pressed forward. There were 32,547 people given the training, of which, 18,774 were given government subsidies and the training at the intermediate and senior level and above accounted for 89.5%. There were 186 internship bases and 6,522 young people given internship opportunities, meeting the year’s target of 163%. There were an average of 132,179 migrant workers given wrap-up insurance monthly, fulfilling the target of 102,700 set by Shanghai Municipal Government.

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  • Geography and Climate

    Geography Xuhui district is located in the southwest of the city, latitude 31°12′north and longitude 120°26′east. It adjoins Luwan district with Shanxi road (South) and Rihui port in the east and is separated by Huangpu River with Pudong area in the southeast and is next to Shanghai county with Dingpu River in the south and Hongmei road in the west, borders on Jing’an district and Changning district with Changle road and Huaihai road (West). It is the key way for people from some rural counties such as Qingpu, Fengxian, Songjiang and Jinshan to enter into the downtown, and also is the main drag to some other provinces such as Zhejiang, Fujian, Jiangxi and Anhui. 1. Geology The whole district lies in the east part of acetabuliform wash of Tai Lake, which is a lowland alluvial plain between Gangshen and Huangpu River. The formation time is not long after the earliest land in Shanghai area--Gangshen belt. The basement rocks are mainly formed by Paleozoic carbonatite, Mesozoic lava and intrusive rock, and red Cenozoic glutenite and basalt in local sunken basin. The basement rocks are covered by incompact deposit with different depth. The surface layer of the ground is brown yellow soil formed by sub-clay and clay. And its subsoil is gray silt-seam.. According to geologic examination, the status at Shimin Village near Hongqiao road is as the following: 10 ms to the surface is filling layer; 10 ms-50 ms to the surface is clay, sub-clay and light sub-dry soil layer; 50 ms-80 ms to the surface is mealy silt, sub-clay layer. Sap green pan is found 25 ms to the surface at Changqiao area in the south of the district. Longhua and some other places have the stratum of river floodplain light gray grit layer or gray light sub-clay layer together with mealy grit layer. The water content here is so high that quicksand is likely to occur. The depth of flat water layer is 0.5 ms in general, 0.3 ms-0.5 ms in Caohejing area and 1.3 ms-2 ms in Changqiao area. The low embedded first water bearing sand can bear the weight of 8-14 t/m². 2. Physiognomy The district is located in the middle part of Shanghai acetabuliform plateau within water meshwork zone in the south of Yangtze and is a part of lowland alluvial plain. The earth’s surface has little natural gradient, and most of the surface is below upsurge mark. Because of excessively exploitation of groundwater, the ground subsided. Some parts in the north of Zhaojiabang road have the latitude of 2.5 ms-3 ms, and its low-lying places are below 2.5 ms. Xuhui district had been one of the land and water transportation and cargo distributing centers. After the liberation, traffic construction in the district has flourished. For railway, there are Shanghai South Railway Station, Xinlonghua Organizing Railway Station and Xujiahui Railway Station. For No.1 subway, 7 subway stations of the total 13 subway stations are located here. For ground traffic, there are more than 150 roads, 38 lines of city buses run across within the district. The buses drive to southwest rural counties start in the bus station of west district. There are more than 100 rivers within the district. Huangpu river crosses the district and has many docks such as Beipiao coal load and unload dock and Kaiping dock, etc.. There are 5 ten thousand berths. The climate in the district is north semitropical monsoon climate with clear divisions of four seasons. Climate 1. Temperature Annual average temperature is 15.5℃. Average temperature of January in winter is 3℃. Average temperature of August in summer is 27.5℃. It is recorded that the lowest temperature in Xujiahui is 12.1℃ bellow zero on Jan. 19 in the 19th year of Emperor Guangxu in Qing Dynasty (1893) and the highest temperature is 40.2℃ on Jul. 12 of the 23rd year of Republic of China (1934). Xujiahui area has clear divisions of four seasons. The average temperature below 10℃ is winter and the average temperature above 22℃ is summer. The average temperature between 10℃ and 22℃ is spring and autumn. Season Distribution Sheet of Xujiahui District Season Average starting and finishing date Average number of days (about) Percentage to the whole year Spring Prophase of last ten-day period of Mar. ~ Anaphase of last ten-day period of Jun. 72 21 Summer Anaphase of first ten-day period of Jun. ~ Prophase of last ten-day period of Sep. 110 30 Autumn Prophase of last ten-day period of Sep. ~ Anaphase of last ten-day period of Nov. 60 16 Winter Anaphase of last ten-day period of Nov. ~ Prophase last ten-day period of Mar. next year. 33 2. Wind direction In winter, the district suffers the northwest monsoon from Mongolia plateau, so the weather is cold and dry with fast wind speed. In summer, it is influenced by southeaster form Pacific Ocean. It is the interim for monsoons in March, September and October with northeaster. Little southwester appears all over the year. 3. Precipitation Summer has more precipitation than winter, and spring than autumn. There is no extremely droughty season. The annual number of precipitation is 1143.1mms and the least monthly precipitation is 38.5 mms in December. There was no rain in the whole December of the 4th year of Republic of China. The number of precipitation in July of the first year of Emperor Guangxu in Qing Dynasty (1875) is 491.9 mms. The rainstorm mainly focuses in summers and autumns. The time for snowfall is short in winter here, and the snow seldom stacks thick. The time and number for hail is also so little. Record of Monthly Average Precipitation and Precipitation Days of Each Month and Day by Xujiahui Observatory Item Month Monthly average number of precipitation (mms) Number of days with more than 0.1mms precipitation in different months (days) 1 48.0 9.6 2 61.5 10.4 3 84.0 12.5 4 93.8 13.0 5 103.2 13.0 6 178.0 13.9 7 144.1 11.2 8 134.6 10.8 9 133.9 12.0 10 70.1 8.9 11 53.4 8.5 12 38.5 7.9 Whole years 1143.1 131.7 Records time 100 years(1873~1972) 100 years (1873~1972) 4. Fog and frost Because the water vapor is flush, the wind speed is slow and there is more condensation nucleus in the air within the district, there are many misty days every year. According to the data recorded by Xujiahui observatory, there are 43 fog days on average every year. The most fog days in a year are in the 19th year of Republic of China, 93 fog days all together. The fewest fog days in a year are in the 27th year of Emperor Guangxu in Qing Dynasty, 3 fog days all together. The fog day often appears at windless and cloudless night or in such morning between January and May or between October and December. Physiognomy within the district is flat, so cold wave’s influence is very visible. When cold wave comes, the temperature drops sharply and frost appears. Those will surly harm crops in early spring and late autumn. The frosty period starts on Nov. 20 and stops on Apr. 24 on average. The frosty period is about 125.4 days in a year and the period without frost is about 240 days. 5. Disastrous weathers The striking disastrous weathers are mainly tropical storm (typhoon), tornado, rainstorm, hail and so on. Typhoon always hits Shanghai in July and August, and sometimes in June and September, about twice a year. On Jul. 28, the 4th year of Republic of China, Xujiahui observatory’s dogvane was broken off by typhoon with the highest wind speed of 44 m/s. On Jul. 28, 1949, the typhoon brought a severe disaster and a rainstorm to Shanghai. According to an incomplete statistic, in the south of Zhaojia Creek within the district, 665 houses were broken down or damaged, 501 families, 2,389 people were hit by the typhoon, 85 people were killed and about 40 people were injured or went to the bed. In 1956, the 12 degree typhoon broke down the steel cross with the weight of 400 kgs on the roof of Xujiahui Catholic church. The tornado often appears between summer and autumn. A tornado hit Longhua, passed by Longhua tower and blow to the northwest on Aug. 5th, 1969. This tornado pulled up telegraph poles, houses and brought huge damages to crops, people and cattle. The rainstorm usually falls in summers and autumns. On Sep. 13, 1963, Longhua was hit by a rainstorm with the rainfall of 246.7 mms. On Aug. 5, 1969, Longhua was hit by a rainstorm with the rainfall of 204.4 mms, and one hour of this rainstorm had reached the highest rainfall of 71.2 mms. It is recorded that a record rainfall was 47 mms in 15 minutes and some places were flooded. The hail seldom appears in the district and with a small quantity. According to the Records of Songjiang Government Office, on the Apr. 8, of the first year of Emperor Yongzheng in Qing Dynasty (1723), the hail hit the area between Longhua and Zhagang. A man was killed and uncountable people were injured. Some big hails were even 25 kgs.

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  • History & Historic Scenes

    The form of Xu Jiahui can be traced back to Ming Dynasty. The famous scientist Xu Guangqi, the secretary of the Grand Council, who had built the farm here to work on agricultural experiments and write scholarly works,had been buried here after his death. Some of his descendants had multiplied and lived here, so it was first named “Xujia Village” and then gradually developed into town. Xu Jiahui, the name of the district, was named just because this place was the confluence of the Zhaojia Creek and Licong River. In the year of Daoguang 22nd in Qing Dynasty (1842), the Jesuits of French Catholicism took the opportunity of Opium War to come to Shanghai to spread their religions and soon after that they gained the protection right of religion according to Huangpu Treaty signed by Chinese and French governments. In the year of Daoguang 27th, the parish that located in the south of Yangtze River chose Xu Jiahui to build the Jesuits’ site because the home place of Xu Guangqi’s descendents had a system of convenient waterborne traffic and a custom of sincerely believing in Catholicism from generation to generation. From then on, some members of the Jesuits who devoted themselves to the work of spreading the religion by writings and proving the religion by theories entered the place to build churches, set up schools and write scholarly works, which spread the western religion culture and at the same time introduced the Chinese culture to the western world, thus promoted the interchange and harmonization of Chinese and Western cultures and the developments of the cultural undertakings. After the Library of the Xu Jiahui Catholic Church was established, Public School St Ignace (Xuhui Public School)--the first middle school built by church in Shanghai was also set up. From 1864, the year of Tongzhi 3rd in Qing Dynasty, the workshops of gardening, shoemaking, weaving, carving, painting, gilding, photo taking, printing and other industries were established one after another on the sites of orphanages and Cathedral of Notre Dames. Tushan Bay was especially famous for its exquisite crafts and the living type printing of its publishing house and the painting house was also honored as the cradle of western paintings in China. In the year of Tongzhi 7th, Xu Jiahui Museum, the first museum in Shanghai, was founded. In 1872, the year of Tongzhi 11th, Xu Jiahui Observatory, the first astronomical observatory in China’s coastal areas was also set up. Therefore, Xu Jiahui Region became the window of western culture’s input and the communication hinge of modern Chinese and foreign culture. In 1872, the year of Xuantong 2nd, after the found of Xu Jiahui Cathedral, Xu Jiahui was gradually becoming the activity center of Catholicism in Shanghai or even the whole country. The prosperity of religion had a great effect on domestic education and culture progress in modern history. After the Catholic churches setting up the Xuhui Public School and Chongde Women’s School and during the period of Constitutional Reform and Modernization Movement in Guangxu period of Qing Dynasty, Sheng Xuanhuai, the later minister of Mail Department, set up Nanyang Public School (Jiao Tong University today)--the first institution of higher learning in Shanghai; the old man Ma Xiangbo, a patriot, set up Aurora College; Wang Peisun expanded Nanyang Middle School on the basis of Yucai Private School; and Zhang Shichuan, the founding father of film circles, set up Huanxian Film Company. All these laid foundations for the advantages of advanced culture and talents gathering in Xu Jiahui Region. In the year of 3 of Republic of China (1914), the French colonialists imposed expansion policy for the third time by forcing about twenty roads built up within Shanghai and compelling Qing government to put the area 4.5 square kilometers north of Zhaojia Creek under the French leased territories. Up to then, the pattern of separate control for French leased territory and Chinese territory was formed within this region. The setup of modern public undertakings in the new-opened leased territory such as electric light, telephone and electric car accelerated the pace of urbanization. The rich merchants and high officials scrambled for good places to build private landscape and deal in real estate. In the period of about twenty years from the early 1900s, this place was gradually developed into a high-level uptown bristled with many gardens, villas and western-styled flats. Correspondingly, foreign-investment enterprises such as Pathe Record Company invested by French businessmen, Kade Milk Company invested by British businessmen and Klaifete Food Company invested by Russian businessmen emerged as the times demand. Under the influence and stimulation of the rapid developments of capitalist market economy, the national industry in the Chinese territory of this region gained slow development, which was guided by Longhua Powder Company built by Shanghai Jiangnan Manufacturing Bureau in 1870s. After World War I, the national industry of this region developed rapidly and such companies were all small ones dealing in textile, food and other light industries except for several large-sized ones, such as Shanghai Cement Co., Ltd. and Tai Mountain Tile Factory, etc.. The first generation of industrial workers entered the historical stage from then on. Under the influence of the break out of May 4th Movement of 1919 and the foundation of CCP, the democratic and socialist trend of thoughts combined rapidly with the anti-imperialism and anti-feudalism revolutionary requirements of the vast intellectuals and industrial workers and then transformed promptly into powerful revolutionary force under the leading of CCP. In 1925, the year of 14 of the Republic of China, the Xu Jiahui Branch of CCP was founded. Under the leading of the Party, the progressive students and industrial workers began to fight against imperialism and warlordism. In March 1927, the year of 16 of Republic of China, the triumph of Shanghai workers’ Third Armed Uprising and the foundation of Shanghai Temporary Government announced the downfall of Northern Warlords’ rule. However, Jiang Jieshi broke his promise and mounted the April 12th Anti-revolutionary Coup, so numbers of revolutionary martyrs sacrificed in the battle. In July, Nanking National Government officially declared that Shanghai was a Special City and its government was located in Jiaotong Road (Pingjiang Road now) while its Garrison Headquarters was located in Longhua. The next year, Shanghai began to set up the administrative district. The areas of Xu Jiahui except French leased territory belonged to the Hunan District, Fahua District and Caojing District respectively. In the year of 20 of Republic of China, the Japanese imperialism mounted the December 18th Incident to invade the northeast of China while Jiang Jieshi took the reactionary policy of “pacifying the interior first and then resisting external aggression”, which gave rise to people’s great indignation in the whole country. The Chinese Students Department of East Asian Tongwen Academy took the lead in school strike and the Teacher-Students Anti-Japanese Committee built and lead by the Branch of CCP Communication University organized numbers of students to attend the petitions gathering all over the whole city and stage a demonstration in which they besieged the city government, destroyed the party’s office and compelled Zhang Qun--the later mayor to resign for the blame. At that time, Xiang Songmao, who was the patriotic businessman of Wuzhou Guben Soap Drug Factory, organized an anti-Japanese Army of Volunteers from his factory. In the year of 21 of Republic of China, the January 28th Song-Hu War broke out and the patriotic generals such as Cai Tingkai, Jiang Guangnai and Dai Ji were in Longhua Garrison Headquarters to deploy and command the battle. Song Qingling, He Xiangning and their peers came personally to the front to bring gifts, entertainment and greetings to the officers and soldiers and build a hospital for wounded soldiers in Communication University. Ma Xiangbo who lived in Tushan Bay delivered the suggestions of self-saving for people in national calamity. The patriotic enthusiasm in the whole region reached an all-time high and the upsurge of resisting Japan and saving the nation became vigorous. In the year of 24 of the Republic of China, the December 9th Movement broke out and the Students’ Nation-Saving Union of Shanghai’s Middle Schools initiated and built by several schools like Zhengfeng Middle School made a response firstly, and many students in Communication University and Shanghai Nanyang Model Middle School attended the petition demonstration to demand the government to stop civil war and resist Japanese aggression unanimously. The patriotic people in cultural circle made the left-wing cultural movements concentrating on resisting Japanese aggression and saving the nation. The progressive publications such as Nanguo Art Institute set up by Tian Han, the Literature edited by Zheng Zhenze, the Taibai edited by Chen Wangdao and the Translation edited by Huang Yuan were published one after another in Shanghai. Under the dual oppressions of imperialism and bureaucratic capitalism, the national industry and commerce fought for survival and developments in adverse circumstances. The enterprises such as Meilin, Taikang and Guangsheng Yuan Food Products Factories tried hard to support themselves and kept going by painstaking efforts. The patriotic industry and commerce people in Grand China’s Rubber Company and Wuzhou Guben Soap Drug Factory depended on the whole employees to struggle against and at last smashed the threat and lure of foreign businessmen’s attempt to monopolize the whole Chinese market. During this period, the real estate industry within the region blossomed for the second time. Only the Jianye Real Estate Company set up by French businessmen had bought lands and built nearly one hundred of buildings in the areas around the current Jiangguo Road (West) and Yueyang Road, and then built nearly 300 buildings in the east, west and middle lanes of Jianye. Numbers of new-styled flats and garden residences such as Rui Hua and Bi Kadi (now Hengshan Hotel) were completed one after another. The high-ranking officers represented by the Four Big Families of Jiang (Jiashi), Song (Ziwen), Kong (Xiangxi) and Chen (Guofu, Lifu) and the well-known figures such as Du Yuesheng and Huang Jinrong all had luxurious residences in this district. In the year of 26 of the Republic of China, the August 13th Song-Hu War broke out and the regions of Chinese territory were all occupied by the enemy, so the regions of leased territory became the refuge of more wealthy businessmen and high-ranking officers from every place. Numbers of enterprises and institutions such as China’s Watch & Clock Factory Manufacturing Company, Jingfu Dress & Socks Weaving Company and Sino-Belgian Radium Institute were moved to this region one after another. The advanced flats such as Huai-Hai Building, Shanghai New Village, Maoling Villa, Yu Garden and new-styled lanes were built one near another. And the food, service and entertainment industries developed correspondently, so the “Isolated Island” in wartime presented an abnormally prosperity while the region of Chinese territory was left in a state of despair and devastation where all business declined. Numbers of poor refugees gathered in Xietu, Xu Town places and regions along the coastland of Zhaojia Creek who had not enough to eat and wear. Japanese armies “cleared up the villages”, mopped up, burned, looted, killed and committed every other kind of atrocity in every place they had reached. Just in the areas of Longhua, Changqiao and Caohejing, nearly a thousand of private houses were burned and nearly a hundred of people were slaughtered. Just in the most dangerous moment of facing the nation’s survival and downfall, the Movement (Work) Committees of all walks such as workers, students, teachers and cultural circle affiliated with CCP’s Jiangsu Provincial Party Committee founded the Party’s grass-roots organizations and societies of resisting Japanese oppression and saving the nation in Shanghai and led the people in all walks to develop the activities of resisting Japanese oppression and saving the nation completely and extensively. The Movement Committee of cultural circle founded the Shanghai Opera Art Association and moved its site to Route Lafayette (current Fuxing Middle Road). The patriotic historical plays, for example, Wen Tianxiang were shown, so the place became the main position of revolutionary culture in “Isolated Island” period. In July, the year of 26 of the Republic of China, CCP’s Jiangsu Provincial Party Committee Organ moved into Xiahams Road (Yongjia Road today) of this region and developed the Party’s secret activities. In March, the year of 30 of Republic of China, Shanghai Office of New Fourth Army was set up in Gaston Khan (Ganshan Road today), thus organized and sent numbers of youths to enter the army and military supplies for the Anti-Japanese base. In July of the same year, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China set up secret broadcasting station in Shanghai and moved to Fulu village on Fululi Road (No. 384, Jianguo Road (West)). In December, the year of 30 of Republic of China, the Pacific War broke out and Japanese armies occupied the leased territory, so the national industry was destroyed greatly and many enterprises were forced to shutdown. The cruel oppressions of Japanese armies made common people have no means to live and are in a precarious stage. In July, the year of 32 of Republic of China, the French leased territory was taken over by Wang Jingwei’s Puppet Government nominally, but in fact had become the new colony of Japanese militarism. In the year of 34 of Republic of China, Japan surrendered and the National Government took over the Wang Puppet Regime and set up the administrative districts according to police regions, so Changshu District within the region (the seventh district), Xu Jiahui District (the eighth district) and their public offices declared the foundations. But under the reactionary reign of Kuomintang’s “all must submit to the Civil War”, the educational funds were slashed, the progressive books and periodicals were prohibited restrictly and the prices increased sharply, so people in the region fell into the abyss of misery again. In order to survive, the mass of workers and progressive teachers and students from the units such as American-Asian Silk Ninth Factory, Longhua Cement Company, Longhua Munitions Factory, Communication University and Former Shanghai Medical University developed successively a series of struggles of anti-starvation, anti-civil war, anti-persecution and anti-America’ pro-Japan which gave active cooperation to Chinese War of Liberation, under the leading of CCP’s underground organizations. In the spring of the year 32 of Republic of China, in order to welcome Shanghai’s liberation, People’s Security Troops were built in Shanghai to fight for protecting the factories and schools. Mu Hanxiang and Shi Xiaowen, the students of Communication University were killed in the struggles of protecting their schools. On May 24 of the next year, PLA liberated the whole country under the support of CCP’s underground organizations. The Changshu and Xuhui districts in the period of liberation covered an area of thirteen-kilometer squares and had a population of 280 thousand. There were about 5 hundred of middle-sized and small-sized factories, 3 thousand of middle-sized and small-sized shops, 1800 individual handicraft factories, 8 institutions of higher learning, 127 middle and primary schools, 13 scientific research center and 3 cinemas and theaters within this region. After the liberation of Shanghai, the newborn people’s regime focused exclusively on building the revolutionary order, maintaining social stability, confiscating bureaucratic capital, establishing state-operated economy, supporting privately-owned industrial and commercial enterprises, recovering and growing production and stabilizing and controlling the market prices. After that, movements such as resisting US Aggression and Aiding Korea, suppressing counter revolutionists, prohibiting gambling, drugs and whores, “Three Antis” and “ Five Antis” were unfolded and the democratic reforms were took in enterprises and institutions widely. After three years’ efforts, the social order of the whole district was gradually stabilizing and the national economy gained recovery and development. The first Five-year Plan of practicing socialist transformation and carrying out national economy began in 1953. In July 1954, Changshu and Xuhui districts held the first session of the first People’s Congress respectively by democratic elections. Soon after that, the first session of the First District Political Consultative Conference Committee was held through democratic consultation. On the basis of launching a tough crackdown on anti-revolutionary activities hiding in Catholicism, the churches united their followers and boarded the Road of anti-imperialism and loving country, maintaining independence and keeping the initiative in our own hands and establishing churches by ourselves. The“Three Selves (self-government, self-supporting and self-passing) reforms were took among Christians, which were anti-imperialism and patriotic. A series of measures aiming at improving people’s living standards were taken simultaneously with the movements of reinforcing socialist regime, developing productions vigorously and ensuring supplies. During this period, the road-building project of filling up Zhaojia Creek was put in practice, which made more than 2000 families--8000 dwellers in “water shantytown” move into the new residences happily. The workers’ new residence such as Rihui Village Ⅰ and Caoxi Village Ⅰ were constructed successively. Till January 1956, the socialism reforms reached the climax. Within the region, 1126 privately-owned factories and 2996 privately-owned shops carried out public-private joint operations, and 955 handicraftsmen built all-together 91 handicraft cooperatives respectively. In March of the next year, Changshu and Xuhui districts were amalgamated into Xuhui District. From 1956, according to the Shanghai Municipal Party Committee’s policy of “sufficient utilization and reasonable development”, the structures of existing industrial companies within the region were readjusted and some newly-born industrial enterprises such as meters, electron, machines, aerospace and aviation which were greatly needed by the countries, were rebuilt or set up. The electronics industrial base was about to build in Caohejing. At the same time, in all the factories and enterprises within the region, the socialist labor emulation campaigns concentrating on increasing productions, economizing and innovating technology were held widely, so the industrial production capacity and the product quality were increased notably. The industrial output of 1956 reached RMB 563 million Yuan, 2.1 times that of 1952(RMB 263 million). Under the call of the Shanghai Municipal Party Committee’s organizing the workers’ family members to work, the street industries in the form of lane manufacturing groups began to be established. As numbers of units dealing in education, science, culture, sanitation and physical culture were moved into the region, built or expanded in the region, the educational and cultural undertakings and commerce and service industries developed correspondently. From the second half of 1957, because the ill influence of the left-deviationist mistakes, the rightists who were labeled wrongly reached about 700. The exaggeration tendency and “go-communist” trend appeared in different degrees in such movements as the Great Leap Forward in 1958. Numbers of cadres were criticized without just causes in “the struggles of anti-right deviation”. The political and economical lives were severely damaged, the socialist enthusiasm of the vast numbers of cadres and mass was dampened and the national economy lost proportion, which gave rise to the tight supplies and hard life for the people. The Eight Characters Policy of “adjustment, consolidation, enrichment and improvement” to the national economy issued by Central Committee of the Communist Party of China was carried out, which corrected the mistakes in some extent and redressed many cadres who were wrongly criticized and treated. In order to overcome the severe difficulties, about ten thousand employees in the whole region were fired or transferred to lower levels. The economy was recovering from 1963 and the industrial productions were again on the rise largely, so the people’s livings were gradually returning to normal. In April 1964, the leaders’ system of the whole country’s industry was adjusted and the state-owned and public-private joint ventures were put under the administrations of the city’s industrial bureau and competent companies. The nation-wide Great Cultural Revolution broke out in 1966. The Xuhui District where CCP’s Shanghai Municipal Party Committee Organs was located became the worst-hit region. The “Kangping Road Incident” happened within the region was in fact the prelusion of “January Storm” in which the rebel factions seized power entirely in 1967, which brought disasters to the whole country. The cadres and mass who were labeled as betrayers, spies, counter revolutionists, incorrigible capitalist-roaders reached more than 6200, abnormal deaths reached a number of more than 400, and those who were confiscated the property, impacted, criticized and denounced or published by hard-labor were innumerable. The precious cultural relics, rare ancient books and records and art of architectures such as the status of Buddha and Buddhist scriptures in Longhua temple and the steeple of Catholic church’s bell tower in Xu Jiahui were tore down, burned down or disposed as wasters. The factories could not produce as usual and the public institutions such as schools and scientific research centers were paralyzed. In October 1976, the Great Cultural Revolution came to the end. In the ten years’ turmoil, people in Xuhui were severely tried. After the Jiangqing Counter-Revolutionary Group was smashed, especially from the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central committee of the Party in 1978, through bringing order out of chaos comprehensively, the working focus was transferred successfully to the economic construction. And it was reappeared the satisfactory situation of restoring order and the pleasant scene of stable politics, stable society, recovering economics and increasing living standards. From the beginning of 1981, in compliance with the new era of the whole city’s reforming and opening to the outside world, CPC’s Xuhui District Party’s Committee and Xuhui government explored new methods actively to release power, ease interest, support with policy, self-accumulate and develop regional economy at a progressive speed. In 1983, the regional financial income broke through RMB 10 million Yuan for the first time. In 1984, the areas such as Longhua town, Caohejing town, Changqiao and Tianlin places were put under the region’s administration by Shanghai County, which enlarged the popedom by double. The next year, the municipal government decided to build microelectronics industrial zone in Caohejing. After several years’ development, it was expanded to Shanghai Caohejing Hi-tech Park under the authorization of the State Council in June 1988. The municipal government seized the opportunity and made the decision of speeding up the pace of tertiary industry development that focused on the industries such as real estate, commerce, tourism and finance. The collective industries, at the other hand, transferred the attention to technological innovations, industrial structure adjustments, product quality improving and scale merits. In 1988, the municipal government carried out the financial management system of “checking the balance between income and expenditure, assuming responsibility for balancing the unit’s budget and turning in the budget, dividing the increased income and fixing a period of five years”. The system of contracted responsibility was fulfilled in grass roots of the whole region according to the reform measures, which mobilized the initiative of companies and employees to manufacture and deal in products. After three years’ practice, the comprehensive economic power of the district increased obviously. Compared with that of 1980, the financial income of 1990 in the district increased 2.61 times and reached RMB 334 million Yuan; the financial expenditure increased 4.9 times and reached RMB 134 million Yuan; the gross value of industrial output belonging to the district reached RMB 455 million Yuan. Thereinto, the industrial companies belonging to collective enterprise administrative bureau created RMB 245 million Yuan, which is 5.47 times of the RMB 44.95 million Yuan created by the street industries in 1980. The commercial sales belonging to the district increased 2.4 times and reached RMB 1.759 billion Yuan; the sales of commodity house reached 47.6 thousand square meters and the sales income reached RMB 73.24 million Yuan that gained foreign exchange of 2.17 million US dollars. All of these had created comparatively easy circumstances to increase the capital investments in the industries such as education, city management and Shopping-basket Project. At the same time, with the aid of implementation of municipal level key construction projects such as Subway Line Ⅰ, the overpass in Caoxi Road (North) and the circular skyway in Zhongshan West Road, 53 roads were broadened or built and 120 thousand square meters street were rebuilt. Under the guidance of the policy of investing together to build the buildings by country, places and companies, the pace of old restrict reconstruction and residence construction was quickened. During the 14 years between 1977 and 1990, 7 new residential districts, 47 new dweller villages, 67 high-rise buildings and other new workshops were built covering a floor area of 3.7774 million square meters, which was 2.46 times of the 1.5334 million square meters that of the whole previous 28 years after liberation. Besides, about 40 slum-dweller places and shabby houses were reconstructed. Families with housing difficulties in which every person owned less than 3 square meters received better conditions and the housing areas per capita reached 7.3 square meters. The average level of consumption of the residents increased 5.5 percent annually from 1980’s RBM 623 Yuan to 1990’s RMB 2,128 Yuan. The undertakings of science, education, culture, sanitation and physical education also developed obviously. In 1990, the research institutions run by the non-state sectors expanded to the number of 81, and 29 middle or primary schools and kindergartens were newly built. The experiment equipments and sports and health facilities in all schools of the district reached the municipally-issued standards. 7 hospitals were built or re-built, 600 sickbeds were added and the health facilities in district-affiliated hospitals and street ones were renovated. Besides, numbers of educational facilities such as science and technological museums and libraries were newly built in the district. Since 1991, under the encouragement of the Fourteenth National People’s Congress’ spirits and Deng Xiaoping’s speech released in his inspection to the South, the whole district quickened the pace of reforming and opening up to the outside world, and the regional economy gained a constant, rapid and healthy development, so the city’s looks changed greatly, and every social undertaking gained the new development. In 1955, the GDP of this district reached RMB 2.284 billion Yuan that increased 1.86 times that of 1992’s RBM 797 million Yuan. The financial income was RMB 1.067 billion Yuan that increased 2.19 times that of 1990’s RMB 334 million Yuan. The total value of industrial output of the district reached RMB 3.369 billion Yuan that increased 6.4 times that of 1990’s RMB 455 million Yuan. The complete of the first phase of Xu Jiahui Shopping Center Project and the three-dimensional traffic, for example, the subway made the city’s appearance whose center was Xu Jiahui Square changed a lot, so the area of commercial network enlarged 10 times and the commercial sales turnovers increased to RMB 9.492 billion Yuan from 1990’s RMB 1.759 billion Yuan. The statuses of Xuhui District’s industry and commerce in Shanghai’s centers ranked the first and third places respectively. The privately-owned technological companies developed quickly, and its scale economy ranked the first place of the city. 316 foreign-invested companies were authorized to build and agreements were reached to attract a foreign capital of 1.034 billion US dollar. The 922 internally-linked enterprises reached agreements to attract a foreign capital of RMB 844 million Yuan. In 1995, the finished area of housing reached 1.332 million square meters that increased 1.3 times that of 1990. 38 breadths and 34.01 hectares land was approved the lease and the income came up to 861 million US dollar, which helped quicken the pace of old district's reconstruction. 65.16 hectares of the old district area were reconstructed, and 24 thousand families moved to the new houses with sound facilities from the shabby ones in five years. Rihui harbor was finished by complete renovation and the newly-built Rihui Road (East) ran from north to south. The Xupu Bridge across Pu River appeared its majestic appearance. The educational expenditure increased obviously and came up to RMB 500 million Yuan. 12 middle schools were built. The environmental qualities were improving continuously, and the district gained the praise of “the top-quality district in building national sanitary city propers of Shanghai” with excellent performances in the activity of building national sanitary city proper. The socialist spiritual civilization focusing on the activity of “being satisfied with Xuhui” was being promoted thoroughly and firmly. Taking a broad view, the course of Xuhui District foundation and development was both the benefits of Chinese-western cultures’ combination created by kind and upright persons from one generation to another generation and the triumph of pushing over the Three Big Mountains (imperialism, feudalism and bureaucrat-capitalism) by innumerable martyrs’ sacrifices. Under the lead of CCP, the new people’s regime led people in the whole district to leave thoroughly the hard and humiliating history, and welcomed the new era of socialist modernization construction, thus formed comparative advantages of advanced science and technology, developed education and numerous talents in the whole city. Since reforming and opening up to the outside world, the spiritual and material civilizations were established constantly, quickly and healthily, and the leading developments of scientific and technological industries especially established a healthy foundation for the whole district’s achieving well-off purpose further. Through all the people’s efforts of the whole district, tremendous achievements of “changing every year and changing greatly every three years” were obtained. Till now, it starts to show the eye-catching splendors of new Xuhui that the modern grand architectures such as the image symbols Xu Jiahui shopping center and the square activity center, Caohejing Hi-tech Park, the privately-owned scientific and technological groups, Hualong tourist attractions, patriotism education base, the solid traffic sight from the sky to the underground, as well as the new site of Shanghai library, Xupu Bridge and the gym with a capacity of 80 thousand seats being built. Xuhui District reinforced the economic construction, at the same time, expanded the preservation of historical relics. The garden residences were the most distinguishing feature of Xuhui District and also the historical product and important component part of Shanghai’s development. Hengshan Road Historical Relics Reservation covers an area of 336 hectares (300 hectares in Xuhui District) that extends to Guangyuan Road and Jianguo Road (West) in south, Yueyang Road and Xiangyang Road in east, Yan’an Road (West) (from the north of Xuhui District to Changle Road) in north and Hushan Road in west. Hengshan Road Historical Relics Reservation was once the A-shaped uptown in French leased territory, but now is where the garden residences of Shanghai concentrate most intensely and more than 2500 garden residences are located (more than 2000 ones in Xuhui District). The garden residences are a high-ranking uptown of quiet environments and special features because of sound construction quality, various architecture styles, flexible decoration, loose construction density and comparatively abundant courtyard greening treatments and building exterior treatments. Among the garden residence relics reservations, the Former Residence of Song Qingling and the Former Residence of Cai Yuanpei have been ranked into the municipal-level cultural relics preservation units, 11 ones such as Xin Kang Garden and Abbey Flat have been officially approved as municipal-level top modern architectural relics preservation units, and other 49 buildings including the Former Residence of Chen Yi, the Former Residence of Huang Xing, the Clove Garden, the Former Residence of Song Ziwen, the residence of Du Yuesheng, the Residence of Jiang Jieshi and Song Meiling, the Former Residence of Sheng Xuanhuai and the Former Residence of Zhang Yuanju, etc.. The architecture of garden residences absorbed the characteristics and artistic expressions of the European and American countries’ residences, villas and mansions and formed a style mingling the features of Spain, great Britain, France, Norway, Germany and other countries’ traditions or the American colony features and western modern techniques, thus have striking features of the times and geography. Longhua Historical Relics Reservation covers an area of 43 hectares that extends to Hualong Road in east, railway line in south, Tianyue-bridge Road in west and Yuannan new village in north. Longhua Martyrs’ Death Place within the Reservation has been ranked key national cultural relics preservation units, and Longhua Tower and Longhua Temple have been ranked municipal-level cultural relics preservation units. In the Relics Reservation, Shanghai Revolutionary Martyrs’ Cemetery was finished on the basis of former Longhua Garden and by linking places such as buildings of former Song-Hu Garrison Headquarters and martyrs’ death place,and has become the important base for Shanghai people to recall revolutionary martyrs and promote revolutionary tradition education. Longhua Tower and Longhua Temple were protected strictly and collocated related service facilities, so they gradually became the important bases of Shanghai Buddhism, folk-customs and tourism. The reconstruction of the old Longhua town remained the town features of southern Yangtze River and strong local characteristics, which was harmonious with Longhua Tower and Longhua Temple. Now the Longhua Tourist City has already initially formed the scale where buildings in the civilian residences’ style of southern Yangtze River featuring in gray tiles, white walls and the corridor bridges with circling towers are harmonious with the old temples and towers.

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